In July of 1943, the Italian fascist army leaded by a General named Festucci headed up the Southern Greek mountains. Near Kosmas village (Parnonas mountain), They found to their surprise that the villages up there had built a fierce communist resistance. After a throughout defeat which is remembered by this monument, the Nazis set out to murder everyone and burn the whole village as a retaliation. After the end of the war the communists handed in their weapons, and then many of them ended in exile at prison islands or assassinated by greek fascists, previous nazi collaborators and their paramilitary battalions. A second time in the end of 1946, the communist resistance moved to the mountains. The civil war began. The memorial was desecrated by greek neonazis several times.